Posts Tagged ‘malware’

Protect yourself from CryptoLocker

Over the years the nature of computer viruses has seen a change in focus. When the earliest reported example, Creeper, first appeared back in 1971 its sole purpose was to gain access to a system and display the message ‘I’m the Creeper, catch me if you can!’. Now, with so much valuable information about us stored on our computers and web services, something far darker has emerged. Ransomware is a new class of virus / trojan horse that has begun to appear on PCs in the last few years, and it is something you should be very concerned about.

The principle of Ransomware is simple. Usually it sneaks into a system disguised as an email attachment and, if opened, then proceeds to encrypt the files on your machine. When this has completed the virus deletes itself and tells the user that their data has been taken hostage and will only be released if they pay the demanded ransom for a key. These style of attacks were first reported in Russia back in 2004, with the Gpcode trojan horse. Security analysts at Kapersky labs were able to crack the hold Gpcode had over data by exploiting mistakes the author had made in the code.

Now it’s back and this time the encryption is rock solid.

Cryptolocker

CryptoLocker is the latest Ransomware virus to strike unsuspecting users, and so far it’s proven impossible to crack. What’s more, it doesn’t just take all the data on your hard drive.

“It also searches for files on all drives,” reported Steve Gibson on the Security Now podcast, “and in all folders it can access from your computer: including workgroup files shared by colleagues, resources on company servers, and more. Anything within its reach it encrypts…so if you have hot online backups they’re victims of this. Essentially the more privileged your account is, the worse the overall damage will be.”

When all of this is completed, Cryptolocker puts up its money demand page, complete with options of payment (Bitcoins or MoneyPak), usually for around three hundred Euros. There’s also a badly worded message telling you that your files have been encrypted and that any attempt to remove the software will destroy the only key that could possibly decrypt it. In a James Bond-style moment of drama the authors place a countdown clock, normally set for 72 hours, which immediately begins to tick down to the moment your data will be destroyed forever. Photos, videos, documents, music, pretty much anything at all that is on your hard drive, all gone.

The structure of the virus is such that it’s not actually possible to create a key for the encryption, because the data needed to do so is held only by the originators of the virus.

“The RSA encryption algorithm uses two keys: a public key and a private key.” explains Kapersky lab expert VitalyK on the Securelist website.  “Messages can be encrypted using the public key, but can only be decrypted using the private key. And this is how Gpcode works: it encrypts files on victim machines using the public key which is coded into its body. Once encrypted, files can only be decrypted by someone who has the private key – in this case, the author or the owner of the malicious program.”

The removal of the virus itself is of little use to the victim, and shutting down the server that holds the key will only result in the loss of the decryption tool, plus this is difficult because the servers switch location on a weekly basis. So most people who suffer a CryptoLocker attack are given the simple advice of either paying the ransom or losing the data, but like in any hostage situation you can never guarantee that the criminals will honour their terms.

Such is the increase of the CryptoLocker attacks in the UK that the National Crime Agency released a statement from its Cyber Crime unit in which it warned:

“The emails may be sent out to tens of millions of UK customers, but appear to be targeting small and medium businesses in particular. This spamming event is assessed as a significant risk.”

The complexity and sophistication of a program such as Cryptolocker is in itself an unsettling precedent. It suggests more than a simple bedroom hacker with impressive coding skills and little conscience, but instead has traces of the fast growing underworld of professional cyber criminals.

“Something of this size…is a well organised group.” says Stephen Doherty, Senior Threat Intelligence Analyst at Symantec. “There’d be dedicated segments to this, because its such a large and focussed operation. The distribution of Cryptolocker in recent weeks is as high, or higher, than most trojans you’d see out in the wild.”

The need for resources to actually run the scam is also a clue to size of the proponents.

“There’s a lot of stages to this,” Stephen continues, “to infect so many machines on an ongoing basis, and try to process all the money in the background. You’d want a well organised team behind you.”

How to protect yourself from a Cryptolocker attack

The rise of the interconnected digital world has brought with it problems that previously existed in the physical realms. From chancers who play on the innocence of victims, up to serious organised crime that has money, skills, cruel intentions and the willingness to use them on the unsuspecting public.

Take solace though, that we do have ways to protect ourselves from these evil spectres of the web.

The first, and most obvious, is to regularly run full backups of your valuable data and then remove the drive from your computer, preferably storing it off-site. See also: How to back up your PC and laptop

Another is to create several online backups via free services such as Dropbox, Google Drive, Skydrive, etc., which usually offer versioning – and thus a way to roll back to older versions of your files.

The most important though is to never, ever open a file or link in an email or on a social website unless you’re sure it was deliberately sent by the person themselves. It may seem interesting at the time, but the results could be utterly catastrophic.

This article appeared on PC Advisor

Irish Web Design – Protect yourself from CryptoLocker

Internet ransomware demands cash to unscramble files

Internet ransomware demands cash to unscramble files

cryptolocker
Cryptolocker’s sophisticated use of encryption has made it hard to defeat

Malicious programs that demand a ransom to restore files that they have encrypted are starting to proliferate.

Security company IntelCrawler has discovered malware called Locker that demands $150 (£92) to restore files.

The cyber-thieves behind Locker were trying to emulate the success of CryptoLocker that has racked up thousands of victims this year.

However, IntelCrawler said, flaws in the malicious program suggest it might be easier to defeat than CryptoLocker.

IntelCrawler said it first saw “large-scale distribution” of several different versions of Locker early this month. So far, the malware has managed to snare people across the US, Europe and Russia. It is spread via infected files placed on compromised websites and through booby-trapped files disguised as MP3s.

Unscramble

Analysis by Andrey Komarov, of IntelCrawler, shows that when Locker infects a machine, it deletes files leaving only encrypted copies behind and also drops a small file containing a unique ID number and contact details for Locker’s creators.

The file also warns that no key will be given to any victim who harasses or threatens the malware’s creators.

Those who want to get their data back are encouraged to use the contact details and, once the ransom is paid, each victim gets a key to unscramble files.

However, help could be at hand for anyone hit by Locker, said Mr Komarov, as IntelCrawler had managed to penetrate the network the cyber-thieves were using to monitor victims. This helped the company extract the universal keys used to scramble target files.

“Our researchers are working on the universal decryption software in order to help the victims,” said Mr Komarov.

Irish Web Design – Internet ransomware demands cash to unscramble files

This article is from the BBC News Technology

Garda Crest

Banks refuse to refund internet fraud victims

Bank customers urged to take more care of personal data

There are countless warnings from banks and police forces advising people to be careful what they download onto therir computers.

Foe example recently Gardaí advised that bank customers should not open phishing emails

Gardaí say they have seen a noticeable increase in cyber-criminals using “phishing” to steal money from people’s bank accounts.

internet search

Since January, up to 250 people have reported to gardaí that they have been victims of the crime.

The amounts stolen vary from €100 to €40,000.

Gardaí advise that bank customers should not open phishing emails, as they may contain a Trojan virus that will be downloaded to their computer.

If they do open one of these emails, they should contact their bank immediately.

They should also never respond to the phishing email under any circumstance.

Bank customers should also ensure their anti-virus software is up to date.

The Garda National Bureau of Fraud Investigation has said the thefts are being carried out by criminal cyber gangs over the web from various jurisdictions.

Some are using so called “mule” accounts in Ireland to transfer the stolen money into.

This can involve the gang paying unscrupulous individuals in Ireland small amounts of money for the use of their accounts, or the gangs themselves setting up their own Irish-based accounts.

Either way, money is transferred out of the victim’s account, into the mule’s account, before being withdrawn locally in Ireland and sent to the crime gangs abroad.

Gardaí say the gangs are based in a variety of locations, including West Africa and Eastern Europe.

However, using remote hosting technology, they can make the phishing emails appear to come from entirely different jurisdictions to the one they are living in.

Gardaí say in many cases banks refund the money that has been stolen.

However, this is not always the case, particularly in circumstances where the individual who has been defrauded has been warned about the dangers.

The Irish Payment Services Organisation has also noticed a spike in phishing crimes.

However, it says that a number of banks in Britain are now refusing to refund money stolen using this technique, because they claim they provide enough warning information to their customers.

One wonders how long before Irish Banks follow suit?

This article includes material from the RTE News Website

Irish Web Design – Banks refuse to refund internet fraud victims

internet users hit by ransom email spam

Internet users hit by ransom email spam

Internet users hit by ransom email spam

The emails appear to be from banks and financial organisations.

Millions of internet users in the UK are at “significant risk” from spam ransomware emails seemingly from banks and financial organisations.

The emails look like invoices or voicemails but in fact contain malware called Cryptolocker, which can encrypt files and the network, demanding payments in Bitcoins, worth about £536, to have it removed.

internet users hit by ransom email spam pc

The UK’s National Cyber Crime Unit (NCCU) warned that emails disguised as posts from banks and financial organisations are aimed at small and medium businesses and millions of bank customers.

In a statement, NCCU said: “This spamming event is assessed as a significant risk.

“The emails carry an attachment that appears to be correspondence linked to the email message (for example, a voicemail, fax, details of a suspicious transaction or invoices for payment).

“This file is in fact a malware that can install Cryptolocker – which is a piece of ransomware.”

NCCU deputy head Lee Miles said that the NCA are actively pursuing organised crime groups committing this crime. “We are working in cooperation with industry and international partners to identify and bring to justice those responsible and reduce the risk to the public,” he said.

Bitcoins have been increasingly targeted by cyber hackers, with about 4,100 Bitcoins valued at over a million Australian dollars being stolen from the online payment processor Inputs.io.

This article originally appeared on CBR

Irish Web Design – Internet users hit by ransom email spam

black hole

Suspected Malware Criminal Arrested

Blackhole malware exploit kit suspect arrested

Russian police have reportedly arrested a man on suspicion of masterminding two infamous hacking tools.

He is suspected of being the man behind the alias Paunch – the nickname used by the creator of the Blackhole and Cool exploit kits, sold to cybercriminals to infect web users with malware.

The Russian authorities have not confirmed the details.

But security firms said they had already detected a decline in the programs’ use.

A spokesman for the law enforcement agency Europol told the BBC: “Europol and the European Cybercrime Centre has been informed that a high-level suspected cyber criminal has been arrested.

“We can only refer you to the Russian authorities, they are the ones who should speak about this topic.”

The Russian police’s press office said it had nothing to add at this time.

However, Alexander Gostev, chief security expert at the Moscow-based internet protection provider Kaspersky Lab, said the arrest had been confirmed to him by “anonymous sources”.

Blackhole software The Blackhole kit offered an interface used to manage malware attacks

 

Spreading malware

The Blackhole kit, released in 2010, dominated the crimeware market throughout 2012 and the start of 2013, according to Fraser Howard, a researcher at the anti-virus company Sophos.

He said the code had been sold for an annual licence of $1,500 (£940) or could be rented from its creator for $200 (£125) for one week’s use, among other price plans.

The software targeted a range of vulnerabilities in the Java programming language, Adobe’s Flash media player, Windows software and PDF files.

It had two ways of doing this:

  • adding malicious code to hundreds of thousands of legitimate websites, which then copied malware to visitors computers
  • creating links in spam messages to specially created sites that infected PCs
Blackhole email
Sophos said that Blackhole was used to send links that directed users to sites that downloaded malware

Among the malware downloaded was:

  • fake anti-virus software that falsely claimed the PC was infected and urged the user to pay a fee to remove viruses
  • Trojans that attempted to steal financial records stored on the PC
  • the ZeroAccess rootkit, which downloaded other software that hijacked the PC for use in a botnet – a facility used to overwhelm websites with traffic and force them offline
  • key loggers that took a record of what was typed on the PC
  • ransomware that attempted to blackmail the PC owner

Although Mr Howard said Blackhole was once the biggest threat of its kind, he added that in recent months it had been overshadowed by rival kits, including Sweet Orange and Neutrino.

According to the researcher, the Blackhole and Cool kits put together were only involved in about 4% of all malware detected by Sophos in August, down from 28% the previous year.

The figure had since dropped to 2% in recent days, he added.

Another independent security blogger stressed that the arrest was still significant.

“If it’s true that the brains behind the Blackhole has been apprehended it’s a very big deal – a real coup for the cybercrime-fighting authorities, and hopefully cause disruption to the development of one of the most notorious exploit kits the web has ever seen,” said Graham Cluley.

“However, it’s worth remembering that nature abhors a vacuum, and there would surely be other online criminals waiting to take their place, promoting their alternative exploit kits and malicious code.”

Mikko Hypponen, chief research officer at F-Secure, agreed.

“If indeed it is Paunch that they arrested, that is a major arrest – he is a big deal,” he told the BBC.

“He was clearly the biggest player in providing exploit kits – not just by selling them, but also renting and leasing them to online criminals.

“Both Blackhole and its successor Cool have been very popular.

“Users didn’t have to be very technical to operate them – there was a manual that came with them – they just had to get them running and be able to break into a high-profile website, or create a new one from scratch, to install something bad on your computer.”

This story appeared on the BBC News Technology Section

Suspected Malware Criminal Arrested – Irish Web Design

Royal Baby Nursery

Royal Baby Malware Attacks

Scammers wasted little time after Prince William and his wife, the former Kate Middleton, announced the birth of their son, who’s now third in line to the British royal throne.

Royal Baby

“Because it is such big news, it didn’t take long for malicious elements to misuse it,” said Kaspersky Lab security researcher Michael Molsner in a Wednesday blog post, noting that the company’s spam traps had already intercepted an email promising regular “Royal Baby” updates.

The message also included a “watch the hospital-cam” link, which appeared to resolve to a legitimate site that had been compromised.

Although the site appears to have since been cleaned, it was serving malicious JavaScript files designed to infect browsers with the Blackhole infection kit.

Irish Web Design –  Royal Baby Malware Attacks

This story appeared on the Information Week Website

gangsters

Malware creators go professional

The professionalisation of malware

Fagin the crook

Summary of this article: The high-end of malware is reaching a new level quality that comes from it being written by professional organisations with real budgets and high standards. Be afraid.

For many years, anti-malware companies have been capturing immense numbers of new, malicious code samples every day. The actual number is controversial, but it’s in the hundreds of thousands. Not a typo.

These samples are generated programmatically by malware authors trying, by brute force, to create something that will slip through defenses. Most of them are garbage. Anti-malware programs don’t write signatures specific to them, but recognize them by more general characteristics as part of a malware family.

Roger Thompson of ICSA Labs, a security research group owned by Verizon, calls these ‘AFTs’ for ‘Another Freaking Trojan’. The term is meant to contrast with APT for ‘Advanced Persistent Threat’; there’s no standard definition of APT, but basically it’s a more sophisticated malware program which can hide in a target network and perhaps even defend itself.

I spoke with Thompson, who I have known for a long time from his pioneering work for several companies in the anti-malware industry. In a recent blog entry he notes a clear rise in the quality of malware at the very high end of the APT segment; he calls this Enterprise Malware because it is being written by enterprise-class organizations.

Security companies know from their own forensic examination of attacks that this Enterprise Malware can be traced back often to defense contractors and various branches of various governments. We know, at least since Stuxnet (although any fool knew it was going on before), that western governments were developing attack code. We know of similar activities from the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) in China, and now the FBI (with the possible assistance of the NSA) is using malware to infiltrate criminal activities. For years European governments have been open about their policy to allow police to hack into the computers of suspects without a warrant.

Not to dismiss the talents of the last generation of malware writers, but governments and defense contractors have enough budget to hire professionals; I suspect the pool of such people who are willing to work for government is much larger than the pool willing to work for criminal organizations. And with enough patience and talent, we may start seeing malware techniques which heretofore haven’t been worth the trouble. Thompson is concerned about the development of cross-platform malware. We saw an example of this in Stuxnet, which used Windows computers to find and attack Siemens industrial controllers.

As Thompson, who knows a thing or two about anti-malware technology, says, anti-malware software can find the AFTs a very, very high percentage of the time, but you can’t expect it to find these attacks, at least not when it matters. It’s for threats like these that defense-in-depth and rigorous attention to best practices is necessary. For high-value targets, there are also products and services, Solera Networks’ DeepSee series for example, which specifically attempt to find threats which are laying low in a network.

After digesting this information, I was tempted to think that this is good news for those of you under the radar; if you’re not the sort of operation that is going to merit a high-quality targeted attack, then following best practices — e.g. always updating all software and anti-malware, practicing least privilege, forcing strong passwords — then you should be OK. But that’s nothing new. It was always true. The real news is just how essential it is for those who might be the target of a high-quality, enterprise malware attack to follow those practices. And it’s discouraging to see how many organizations fall short.

This is an edited version of an article by Larry Seltzer

Read the full version of this article here:

Malware creators go professional Irish Web Design – Website Security

Gremlins poster

The dreaded Blackhole Exploit Kit is back

The dreaded Blackhole Exploit Kit is back!

Gremlins attack websites

The last week has seen a resurgence of this malicious software appearing on websites around the globe.

Visitors to the sites who have AVG Anti Virus software installed on their systems receive a warning about the infection.

Website owners who do not act quickly to deal with the infection and clean up their websites may find Google blocking access to their websites.

The Blackhole Exploit Kit and it’s many variations was developed by some of the most skilled computer criminals in the world.

It is thought that these gangs originate in Russia or Eastern Europe.

The Blackhole exploit kit is now the most prevalent web threat globally.

The criminals make the software available as a kit on an outright sale or licence basis and each version is tweaked to suit the ‘end user’ criminal’s particular purposes.

In general, the kit uses hidden code to analyse the software on the computer it attacks to find any vulnerabilities.

When it finds some software which can be exploited, it will then run another piece of software, which often in the form of a pop up window.

This appears to be a warning about a malware or virus infection when in point of fact, it is a malware!

The  computer is now under ‘remote control’ by the hackers, who can return and take over running the machine at any time.

What is particularly worrying about this infection is that there is at present no ‘magic bullet’ or simple cure.

Irish Web Design – the dreaded Blackhole Exploit Kit is back AKA Black hole exploit kit.

Magnifying Glass

Web Servers Under Attack

Irish Web Design continue to monitor developments in the ongoing saga of the many web servers under attack.

Eye Graphic

The www.arstechnica.com website carried the following story on the subject in its Risk Assessment / Security & Hacktivism section.

The piece is entitled “Admin beware: Attack hitting Apache websites is invisible to the naked eye”

With the sub-heading: “Newly discovered Linux/Cdorked evades detection by running in shared memory.”

“Ongoing exploits infecting tens of thousands of reputable sites running the Apache Web server have only grown more powerful and stealthy since Ars first reported on them four weeks ago. Researchers have now documented highly sophisticated features that make these exploits invisible without the use of special forensic detection methods.

Linux/Cdorked.A, as the backdoor has been dubbed, turns Apache-run websites into platforms that surreptitiously expose visitors to powerful malware attacks. According to a blog post published Friday by researchers from antivirus provider Eset, virtually all traces of the backdoor are stored in the shared memory of an infected server, making it extremely hard for administrators to know their machine has been hacked. This gives attackers a new and stealthy launchpad for client-side attacks included in Blackhole, a popular toolkit in the underground that exploits security bugs in Oracle’s Java, Adobe’s Flash and Reader, and dozens of other programs used by end users. There may be no way for typical server admins to know they’re infected.

“Unless a person really has some deep-dive knowledge on the incident response team, the first thing they’re going to do is kill the evidence,” Cameron Camp, a security researcher at Eset North America, told Ars. “If you run a large hosting company you’re not going to send a guy in who’s going to do memory dumps, you’re going to go on there with your standard tool sets and destroy the evidence.”

Linux/Cdorked.A leaves no traces of compromised hosts on the hard drive other than its modified HTTP daemon binary. Its configuration is delivered by the attacker through obfuscated HTTP commands that aren’t logged by normal Apache systems. All attacker-controlled data is encrypted. Those measures make it all but impossible for administrators to know anything is amiss unless they employ special methods to peer deep inside an infected machine. The backdoor analysed by Eset was programmed to receive 70 different encrypted commands, a number that could give attackers fairly granular control. Attackers can invoke the commands by manipulating the URLs sent to an infected website.

“The thing is receiving commands,” Camp said. “That means that suddenly you have a new vector that is difficult to detect but is receiving commands. Blackhole is a tricky piece of malware anyway. Now suddenly you have a slick delivery method.”

In addition to hiding evidence in memory, the backdoor is programmed to mask its malicious behaviour in other ways. End users who request addresses that contain “adm,” “webmaster” “support,” and similar words often used to denote special administrator webpages aren’t exposed to the client exploits. Also, to make detection harder, users who have previously been attacked are not exposed in the future.

It remains unclear what the precise relationship is between Linux/Cdorked.A and Darkleech, the Apache plug-in module conservatively estimated to have hijacked at least 20,000 sites. It’s possible they’re the same module, different versions of the same module, or different modules that both expose end users to Blackhole exploits. It also remains unclear exactly how legitimate websites are coming under the spell of the malicious plugins. While researchers from Sucuri speculate it takes hold after attackers brute-force the secure-shell access used by administrators, a researcher from Cisco Systems said he found evidence that vulnerable configurations of the Plesk control panel are being exploited to spread Darkleech. Other researchers who have investigated the ongoing attack in the past six months include AV provider Sophos and those from the Malware Must Die blog.

The malicious Apache modules are proving difficult to disinfect. Many of the modules take control of the secure shell mechanism that legitimate administrators use to make technical changes and update content to a site. That means attackers often regain control of machines that are only partially disinfected. The larger problem, of course, is that the highly sophisticated behavior of the infections makes them extremely hard to detect.

Eset researchers have released a tool that can be used by administrators who suspect their machine is infected with Linux/Cdorked.A. The free python script examines the shared memory of a sever running Apache and looks for commands issued by the stealthy backdoor. Eset’s cloud-based Livegrid system has already detected hundreds of servers that are infected. Because Livegrid works only with a small percentage of machines on the Internet, the number of compromised Apache servers is presumed to be much higher.”

Further relevant articles can be found on the website: http://www.arstechnica.com

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